Tag Archives: punishment

Vikings raid Lindisfarne (793)

This idea that the Vikings were the instruments of God’s wrath visited upon a sinful population seemed to be supported by earlier omens and portents of doom. Medieval Christendom was a superstitious society, given to magical thinking and assumptions about the hidden (or not so hidden) meanings of storms, comets and even unusual tides. In 793… Continue reading

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Civilisation 28: Chrysippus

Chrysippus was a determinist, believing in fate and pre-ordination. And yet he also championed the role of free will, a concept he believed could best be approached by practicing Stoicism. Continue reading

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